By Bas C. Van Fraassen
An introductory, historic survey of philosophical positions on area and time, during the particular conception of relativity and the causal idea of time.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space
12). That is, the fact that language, and the world it pictured, possesses certain ‘formal’ features was thought by Wittgenstein to be shown (although not said) in the fact that certain expressions are tautologies. But the Vienna Circle was dissatisfied with this conception. Wittgenstein’s talk of ‘showing formal properties of the world’ smacked of the metaphysics they, as empiricists, were concerned to avoid. Rather, Circle members (Moritz Schlick and Rudolf Carnap in particular) proposed treating the truths of logic as expressions of the conventions governing a given language (cf.
And there was a second factor that led Carnap to realize that the Aufbau project could not work as originally conceived. 3 But there was a problem here. Carnap was on the one hand claiming in the Aufbau to construct a system of concepts that would show how the objectivity of science could rest on a basis such as ‘autopsychological’ subjective experience, while at the same time appealing to the results of empirical psychology to construct that very system. This raised the risk of vicious circularity at the heart of the Aufbau.
The exact formulation of the verifiability criterion was to be heavily debated within the Circle, but central to all formulations was the idea that the classical statements of metaphysics would fail to satisfy it. 8 Carnap and Logical Empiricism The most detailed attempt to fill out the above picture was Rudolf Carnap’s 1928 book The Logical Structure of the World (1967: hereafter ‘Aufbau’). Like Russell, Carnap (1891–1970) was very much concerned with the epistemology of the sciences, and like Schlick, he was concerned to establish the objectivity of scientific knowledge using the resources of the new logic of Principia Mathematica.
An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space by Bas C. Van Fraassen