By John Charles Chasteen
In 1808, international historical past took a decisive flip whilst Napoleon occupied Spain and Portugal, a eu occasion that had lasting repercussions greater than part the realm away, sparking a sequence of revolutions through the Spanish and Portuguese empires of the recent global. those wars for independence resulted finally within the production of 19 self sustaining Latin American republics. this is an engagingly written, compact historical past of the Latin American wars of independence. continuing nearly cinematically, scene through brilliant scene, John Charles Chasteen introduces the reader to steer gamers, simple thoughts, key occasions, and dominant traits, braided jointly in one, taut narrative. He vividly depicts the contributors and occasions of these tumultuous years. listed below are the recognized leaders--Simón Bolívar, José de San Martín, and Bernardo O'Higgins, Father Hidalgo and Father Morelos, etc. right here too are lesser identified Americanos: patriot girls reminiscent of Manuela Sáenz, Leona Vicario, Mariquita Sánchez, Juana Azurduy, and Policarpa Salavarrieta, indigenous rebels reminiscent of Mateo Pumacahua, and African-descended generals corresponding to Vicente Guerrero and Manuel Piar. Chasteen captures the collection forces for independence, the clashes of troops and judgements of leaders, and the wealthy, intricate tapestry of Latin American societies as they embraced nationhood. through the top of the interval, the leaders of Latin American independence might embody classical liberal principles--particularly renowned sovereignty and self-determination--and completely increasing the worldwide succeed in of Western political values. this day, many of the world's oldest functioning republics are Latin American. And but, Chasteen observes, many be afflicted by a stricken political legacy that dates again to their delivery. during this e-book, he illuminates this legacy, whilst he illustrates how the region's dramatic fight for independence issues unmistakably ahead in international background.
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Extra info for Americanos: Latin America's Struggle for Independence (Pivotal Moments in World History)
Over the years, the descendants of manumitted slaves came to constitute a signiﬁcant portion of the Venezuelan population. These free blacks were normally mixed-descent pardos. Like many of América’s mixed-descent populations, the pardos were upwardly mobile. They 18 Americanos had no interest in laboring on plantations and refused to do it for any price that the planters were willing to pay. Many were artisans who earned as much as poor whites. But the caste system, designed to keep people in their place, stipulated that pardos, no matter how prosperous, could not do certain things associated with high social rank—such as ride a horse, wear silk, carry a sword, or study at a seminary—reserving those honors for bona ﬁde (white) americanos.
The freethinking schoolmaster escaped under an assumed name, Samuel Robinson, which he took from the book Robinson Crusoe to signal his self-reinvention as a political castaway. Rodríguez went ﬁrst to Jamaica, where he improved his conversational English, then to the United States, and then, of course, to France, the original homeland of liberty, where he lived as “Samuel Robinson of Philadelphia” and shared a house, for a while, with Servando Teresa de Mier, a radical priest who had ﬂed New Spain for 28 Americanos political reasons.
The Indians protested at the special tribute they had to pay, while mestizos and pardos chafed at the caste system that limited their social mobility. Among the bishop’s recommendations were elimination of the tribute and caste distinctions and free distribution of all the vacant lands in New Spain. The bishop’s main recommendation, though, was more royal support for the church, most especially for the parish clergy. Only the parish clergy, according to Abad y Queipo, could exert the moral suasion needed to maintain Spanish rule in the villages of New Spain.
Americanos: Latin America's Struggle for Independence (Pivotal Moments in World History) by John Charles Chasteen