By Frederick E. Hoxie
"This is a vital ebook. within the latter 19th century, varied and influential components in white the USA mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the consequences have been the basically treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, comparable laws, and doubtful court docket judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with no practical rights used to be given local american citizens; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed sooner than the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and ability that move well past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined concerns and factors, put economic/political/social interplay into cogent standpoint, introduced various Anglo and Indian participants and companies to existence, and set forth vital lessons."-Choice. "This major examine of Indian-white relatives in the course of a posh time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually tough . . . This quantity is going some distance to fill a wide hole within the background of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yankee historical past. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle middle for the historical past of the yank Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).
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Extra resources for A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920
Such expectations were most common among the eastern Protestants and Republicans who had ﬂocked to hear Standing Bear and Bright Eyes. These groups most clearly articulated the assimilation argument and formed the core of the organizations that began to lobby for its adoption. Three reform associations emerged in the 1880s to tap the growing public interest in Indian assimilation. The ﬁrst, the Boston Indian The Appeal of Assimilation 11 Citizenship Committee, was organized in the aftermath of the Standing Bear tour.
Standing Bear made his Chicago debut in October. Each of the chief’s appearances was carefully orchestrated. Tibbles selected two young, well-educated Omaha Indians to accompany the elderly Ponca: Susette LaFlesche and her brother Joseph. While on stage Susette obscured the memory of her French and English grandfathers 8 The Appeal of Assimilation and bore an English version of her tribal name: Bright Eyes. She appeared in buckskin, translated the chief’s speech, and delivered a brief appeal of her own.
42 Fletcher’s Omaha proposal called for the sale of ﬁfty thousand acres of the reservation to ﬁnance the development of individual homesteads. Not surprisingly, Nebraska’s congressional delegation was quick to support her. Charles Manderson managed the bill through the Senate and the state’s lone congressman, Edward Valentine, was one of its principal backers in the House. 43 The Omaha tribe was now ready for civilization. “They are on the eve of a new life,” Fletcher wrote a friend. “Soon their farms will be staked out and the beautiful lands along the Logan opened up, and the foundations of new homes laid.
A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 by Frederick E. Hoxie