By Jan Bates Wheeler
In 1960, the varsity front exam Board turned an unforeseen player within the flow to desegregate schooling within the South. operating with its accomplice, academic checking out providers, the varsity Board quietly built-in its Scholastic flair try out (SAT) facilities during the Deep South. touring from nation to kingdom, taking one college district or even one institution at a time, collage Board employees contributors, either local southerners, waged a crusade of quiet persuasion and succeeded, setting up a roster of desegregated try facilities inside of segregated university districts whereas the old conflict for civil rights raged round them. within the context of the bigger fight for equivalent possibilities for southern black scholars, their paintings addressed a small yet serious barrier to better education.
Shedding mild in this striking tale for the 1st time, Jan Bates Wheeler tells how the varsity Board employees contributors Ben Cameron and Ben Gibson succeeded. Their candid and thoughtfully written files of conversations and confrontations, untouched for almost fifty years, demonstrate the endurance required to arrive a aim many notion unachievable or even foolhardy. certainly, their activity positioned them within the strange place of advocating for faculty desegregation on a daily foundation as a part of their jobs. This located Cameron and Gibson squarely towards winning legislation, customs, and attitudes an ill-advised stance for any nascent company enterprise, rather one experiencing festival from a brand new, rival checking out association alleged to accommodate overtly those self same legislation, customs, and attitudes.
Cameron and Gibson additionally authorized the private probability excited about confrontations with racist college officers. The officers who cooperated with the pair assumed even higher threat, and so as to reduce that possibility, Cameron and Gibson pledged to not publicize their efforts. Even years after their paintings had ended, the 2 males refused to write down approximately their crusade for worry of compromising the folk who had helped them. Their issues, in line with Wheeler, saved this striking tale principally untold beforehand.
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Extra resources for A Campaign of Quiet Persuasion: How the College Board Desegregated SAT Test Centers in the Deep South, 1960-1965
Wilkins’s prominence put ETS on alert. 41 In 1960 Roy Wilkins was fully engaged in his work. Energized and encouraged about the momentum that student sit-ins were generating in the civil rights movement, he nevertheless was concerned about how to keep that momentum going over the long term. He was keenly interested in the upcoming presidential election between John Kennedy and Richard Nixon and how its outcome would a≠ect the movement. He was very much aware that the NAACP was not the only group vying for the loyalty of black citizens—the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Urban League (NUL) were all seeking followers and financial support.
By focusing on only the “equal” portion of Plessy, the NAACP could postpone confronting the very essence of segregation— the “separate” portion—until a later time, one they hoped might be more conducive to their success. A third reason for choosing law schools, as opposed to other professional or graduate education, stemmed from the fact that the white judges who would hear the Fund’s cases were themselves very familiar with the resources necessary for a sound legal education. They were not likely to accept the makeshift, substandard remedies o≠ered by states resisting desegregation.
The three candidates complained to the supervisor about the noise, but it continued. Powell also wrote that one of the fans in the test room was so noisy that it had to be turned o≠. Powell concluded that the supervisor intentionally made the testing conditions di∞cult for the three black candidates. ” In an aside, Powell mentioned that at the end of the exam one of the “white boys” o≠ered him a ride back to town and during the drive “emphatically expressed” his disagreement with the way Powell and the other two black candidates had been treated.
A Campaign of Quiet Persuasion: How the College Board Desegregated SAT Test Centers in the Deep South, 1960-1965 by Jan Bates Wheeler