By Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)
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Additional info for 3D Contrast MR Angiography
Kg, the MR contrast volurne is stillless than half of the iodinated contrast required for CTA. 2. The imaging plane of 3D MR angiography acquisitions can be adjusted to fit the anatomy of the vascular territory under consideration. The ability to acquire the data in the coronal or sagittal planes provides greater vessel coverage at high resolution with fewer slices. This is of particular relevance in the assessment of aortic disease, such as dissections, where it is important to determine the extent of vessel involvement within the chest and abdomen.
Early development of pulmonary MRA techniques focused on black blood and time-of-flight approaches. Neither of these has proven reliable. Three-dimensional (3D) contrast MRA now offers several advantages that make pulmonary MRA possible. The 3D spoiled gradient echo technique has an intrinsically short echo time (TE). With high performance gradients, echo times under 3 and even 1-2 ms are available. These are sufficient to eliminate susceptibility artifact. Due to the enhancement with paramagnetic contrast, 3D contrast MRA is less affected by inflow variations that create pulsation artifact on time-of-flight and phase contrast imaging.
One advantage of the sagittal acquisition is that the duration ofbreath-holding can be reduced without sacrificing spatial resolution. Breath-holding can also be shortened by using magnet systems with the highest available gradient performance. With such systems, a single lung can be imaged in under 10 seconds. It is also important that the echo time be well under 3 ms in order to minimize susceptibility artifact from the air-tissue interfaces throughout the lungs. The acquisition of multiple signal averages is counterproductive.
3D Contrast MR Angiography by Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)